was initiated by James Macgregor Bundes (1978) and Bernard M. Bass (1985). Sarros, Gray & Densten (2002, p.6) describe
transformational leadership as “Motivation others to do more than they originally intended and often more than they
thought possible.” In essence it is the process of guiding, inspiring, influencing and building commitment to a goal
and empowering a group to accomplish the goal. Transformational leadership is primarily concerned with progress and development
(Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2003).
approaches can be grouped into five categories:
- Idealised Attributes – Leading by means of charisma, a behavior that encourages a follower
to trust in the leader. Leaders become role models who are admired, respected and emulated by followers.
- Idealised Behaviors – Leading by acting as an influential role model and encouraging followers
to share a common vision and goal. Helps others to look at the futuristic state of the group, and inspires acceptance by aligning
personal values and interests with the collective group.
- Inspirational Motivation – Leading through a visionary approach; raising workers’
expectations and beliefs about the mission and goal through appeals to their emotions. This is done by building relationships
with followers through interactive communication, which forms a bond and leads to the shifting of values between both parties
to a common goal.
- Intellectual Stimulation – Leading by appealing to workers’ sense of inquiry; challenging
them by questioning assumptions and encouraging creative problem solving. Involves including followers in problem solving
and ensuring mistakes are not publicly criticized and creativity is openly encouraged.
- Individualised Consideration – Leading by focusing on the individual and providing coaching
and mentoring based on the individuals needs for achievement and growth. The considerate transformational leader recognises
and demonstrates acceptance of the followers individual differences in terms of needs and desires.
(Sarros, Gray & Densten,
2002), (Stone, Russell & Patterson, 2003).
The above categories can
be considered as the core or functional attributes of an transformational leader. These functional attributes lead to accompanying
attributes, which are:
Idealized influence / charisma
Commitment to goals
(Stone, Russell & Patterson,